Chemicals Needed for Winemaking
Copyright 2016 The Winery at Wilcox
1867 Mefferts Run Road
Wilcox, PA 15870
Facts about Wine
Beginner's Guide
Materials Needed
Different Yeast Types
Chemicals Needed
Conversion Table
We sell various types of wine making chemicals that the winemaker may or may not need, according to the recipe they are using. Most bottles come with a desciption for their use and ratio of use.

Bentonite: A very nice clarification agent, this will prevent hazing in wine and will help to settle it out, to prepare this, mix in hot water until it dissolves, then let stand until it cools off. Add to wine and put wine in a cool place, this agent works best if used in cool conditions. Can be used on red or white wines, Use this at 1 to 2 grams per gallon.

Calcium Carbonate / Potassium Bicarbonate: This reduces acid in juice. It is added before fermentation. 2.5 grams per gallon will lower total acid by .1%.

Campden Tablets/ Potassium (or Sodium) Metabisulfite: This basically has two purposes: to kill wild yeast and for use as a sanitizing agent. Use it before to clean bottles, carboys, and to soak corks in a solution before bottling.

Citric Acid and Acid Blend: Used to increase the total acidity of a wine, 3.7 grams will increase acidity by .1%, adding 1 gram per 10 gallons of wine will prevent certain hazes that might occur in your wine. More frequently used in non fruit wines or dry whites.

DAP (Diammonium Phosphate): This is a nitrogen source for the yeast, this will help with fermentation by limiting the number of “stuck” fermentations that will occur. Use 1 gram per gallon of wine.

Divergan F: Used to prevent “chill haze”. This means if your wine gets cloudy when put in the refrigerator; this will help maintain stability at cool temperatures. Ideal for whites and blushes that get refrigerated.

Dry Pectic Enzyme: Add to the juice before fermentation occurs. This will break down pectins, which will make filtering and clarification a lot easier. Use at a rate of 3 drops per gallon. These must be kept refrigerated, or they will lose their effect.

Mimosa Extract or Tannin Powder: This is basically the same thing as Tartaric Acid. This helps in the clarification of fruit wines such as peach, blackberry, and raspberry. Helps to impede oxidation and aids in maturing of the wine. Add about a half of a teaspoon per 5 gallons of wine. It is highly recommended for fruit wines and some white wines, so they become clearer. It is naturally found in grapes and helps in preservation and in clearing the wine up after fermentation. 4.1 grams per gallon will increase total acid by .1%. Reds should never need this.

Oak Chips: Are added to dry reds or whites to add that “barrel aged” “vanilla” taste. Soak in water before adding.

Potassium Bicarbonate / Calcium Carbonate: Used to reduce the acid in wine, if the wine is too “bity” then this can be used to soften this. Use at about 2.5 grams per gallon to reduce acid by .1%. Best if used about 6 months before bottling.

Potassium Metabisulfite / Sodium Metabisulfite/ Campden Tablets: This chemical produces sulfites in wine; Sulfites help to protect the wine against oxidation and refermentation. It is also used as a sterilizing agent. Use a quarter teaspoon for 5 gallons of wine. Too much of this will make your wine taste and smell like sulfur. When using this as a sterilizing agent, add 1 to 2 tablespoons for a gallon of water, this will kill any yeast or bacteria.

Potassium Sorbate: Very important if your wine is going to contain any residual sugar in it. This is a stabilizer, a yeast inhibitor to ensure that refermentation does not occur during sweetening. This must be used with Potassium Metabisulfite. Dry wines do not require this. THIS DOES NOT KILL OFF YEAST OR BACTERIA it only prevents further growth. This will prevent fermentation in the bottle. Use Sorbate at a rate of 1 gram per gallon, if you go too much over, your wine will smell like dirty sweat socks, no one wants thatů

PVPP: This will reduce browning agents in white wines, it will also strip any color to a white wine, never use on a red wine only white wines. Use at about 1 gram per gallon. To prepare this, mix in hot water until dissolved, then let cool, mix again and add to wine.

Sodium Metabisulfite: This is the same thing as Potassium Metabisulfite except that this has a longer shelf life. It is used as a preservative and to boost sulfite level. 1 gram per gallon gives a sulfite increase of 150 parts per million. We use about 30 to 50 parts per million in our wine.

Yeast Nutrient/ Fermaid: This is “food” for the yeast. Grapes normally have all the “food” required, however if you are using concentrate or base wine for sparkling you will need this. Most other fruits are deficient; this is highly recommended for all non-grape wines. Prevents defects in wine and helps in the fermentation process, use at 1 gram per gallon.

Yeastex-61: This is another nutrient aimed more towards fruit wines other than grapes and white grape wines, this will help the fermentation go to completion more readily, use at 1 gram per gallon.

Yeast Energizer: Restarts “stuck” fermentation.

Yeast Starter: Is used to jump start your fermentation for aggressive wines.